Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more prevalent in individuals with obesity, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. Individuals with CKD are prone to kidney failure, with symptom experiences that rival those of patients with cancer. We explored symptom burden in individuals with CKD via a systematic review of 30 quantitative and qualitative articles. The most common CKD symptoms were fatigue, weakness, pain, sleep disturbances and itchy skin. Instruments used to assess symptoms were the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL)-36, the Palliative Outcome Symptom-Scale renal (POS-r)-13, and the Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI)-10. The included qualitative studies expand and expound on the quantitative data presented. This article describes the prevalence of symptom burden in individuals with CKD in relation to psychosocial and demographic factors and discuss the importance of symptom management.
We would like to acknowledge the contributions of Amanda Applegate to the development of this manuscript.
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Editorial Board Disclosures: Paula Dutka, MSN, RN, CNN, discloses that she is a consultant for Rockwell Medical.
All other members of the Editorial Board had no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this nursing continuing professional development education activity.
Author(s) Disclosures: The author(s) reported no actual or potential conflict of interest.
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This article was developed as part of the ANNA Research Committee's Exploring the Evidence project.
This article was reviewed and formatted for contact hour credit by Beth Ulrich, EdD, RN, FACHE, FAONL, FAAN, Nephrology Nursing Journal Editor-in-Chief, and Sally Russell, MN, CMSRN, CPP, ANNA Education Director.
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ANNA is an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 17499.
This NCPD article meets the Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission’s (NNCC’s) continuing nursing education requirements for certification and recertification.
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Learning Outcome: After completing this learning activity, the learner will be able to assess patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly in regard to symptom burden.