Requirements for Successful Completion: Complete the learning activity in its entirety and complete the online CNE evaluation.
Speaker, Faculty, Planners and Authors Conflict of Interest Disclosure: Speaker(s) have no disclosures to declare.
Planning Committee: • Annette Hood discloses that she is a member of the Amgen speakers’ bureau. • Denise Murcek discloses other financial/material support as an employee of the VA Medical Center. • Elizabeth St. John discloses other financial/material support as an employee of Fresenius Medical Care. • Kyra Trappett discloses other financial/material support as an employee of DaVita.
Commercial Support and Sponsorship: No commercial support or sponsorship declared.
Accreditation Statement: American Nephrology Nurses’ Association is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.
ANNA is a provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, provider number CEP 00910.
Objectives: • Review the historical origins of sugar in development of man and civilization. • Discuss the direct experimental evidence regarding sugar consumption and development of obesity. • Discuss the pathogenesis of sugar in the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. • Relate level of sugar consumption to increases in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. • Identify the implications of sugar in chronic kidney disease.