Goal: To discuss the technical components of the water treatment system used for dialysis.
List the components of the water system at your dialysis clinic.
Discuss clinical manifestations of exposure to improperly treated water and dialysate.
Describe the required monitoring of the water treatment system and dialysate.
Note: This article is an update of Ms. Amato's article, Water Treatment for Hemodialysis, Including the Latest AAMI Standards, which appeared in the December 2001 issue of Nephrology Nursing Journal, Volume 28. No. 6, pp. 619-629.
Acknowledgements: The author would like to thank Doug Luehmann, DaVita, Inc.; Terry McClure, GE Osmonics; and Gambro for use of their figures in this article.